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HAHA. Now i will tell what is MIGRAIN to who that don't know yet!


What Is Migraine? 
What Causes Migraines?

A migraine is a severe, painful headache that is often preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound. The excruciating pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days. 

Migraine headaches result from a combination of blood vessel enlargement and the release of chemicals from nerve fibers that coil around these blood vessels. During the headache, an artery enlarges that is located on the outside of the skull just under the skin of the temple (temporal artery). This causes a release of chemicals that cause inflammation, pain, and further enlargement of the artery. 


A migraine headache causes the sympathetic nervous system to respond with feelings of nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. This response also delays the emptying of the stomach into the small intestine (affecting food absorption), decreases blood circulation (leading to cold hands and feet), and increases sensitivity to light and sound. 


More than 28 million Americans suffer from migraine headaches, and females are much more likely to get them than males.



Researchers from the Glia Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil and the Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA, found that kids with migraines are much more likely to also have behavioral problems, such as attention issues, anxiety, and depression, compared to children who never have migraines.


Brain lesions and migraine link - women who suffer from migraines have a greater risk of having deep white matter hyperintensities (brain lesions) compared to other women, researchers from Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands, reported in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) (November 2012). They added that migraine severity, frequency and how long they had been going on for were not associated with the progression of lesions.


What causes migraines?

Some people who suffer from migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, but many cannot. Potential migraine triggers include:
Allergies and allergic reactions
Bright lights, loud noises, and certain odors or perfumes
Physical or emotional stress
Changes in sleep patterns or irregular sleep
Smoking or exposure to smoke
Skipping meals or fasting

Alcohol
Menstrual cycle fluctuations, birth control pills, hormone fluctuations during menopause onset
Tension headaches
Foods containing tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, and some beans), monosodium glutamate (MSG), or nitrates (like bacon, hot dogs, and salami)
Other foods such as chocolate, nuts, peanut butter, avocado, banana, citrus, onions, dairy products, and fermented or pickled foods.
Triggers do not always cause migraines, and avoiding triggers does not always prevent migraines.


What are the symptoms of migraine?

    Symptoms of migraine can occur a while before the headache, immediately before the headache, during the headache, and after the headache. Although not all migraines are the same, typical symptoms include:Moderate to severe pain, usually confined to one side of the head, but switching in successive migraines

Pulsing and throbbing head pain
Increasing pain during physical activity
Inability to perform regular activities due to pain
Nausea
Vomiting
Increased sensitivity to light and sound



How is migraine diagnosed?

Physicians will look at family medical history and check the patient for the symptoms described above in order to diagnose migraine. The International Headache Society recommends the "5, 4, 3, 2, 1 criteria" to diagnose migraines without aura. This stands for:

5 or more attacks
4 hours to 3 days in duration
At least 2 of unilateral location, pulsating quality, moderate to severe pain, aggravation by or avoidance of routine physical activity
At least 1 additional symptom such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound.

How is migraine treated and prevented?

Migraine treatment (abortive therapies) and prevention (prophylactic therapies) focus on avoiding triggers, controlling symptoms, and taking medicines. Over-the-counter medications such as naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen (paracetamol), and other analgesics like Excedrin(aspirin with caffeine) are often the first abortive therapies to eliminate the headache or substantially reduce pain. Anti-emetics may also be employed to control symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. 


Serotonin agonists such as sumatriptan may also be prescribed for severe migraines or for migraines that are not responding to the over-the-counter medications. Similarly, some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - antidepressants such as tricyclics - are prescribed to reduce migraine symptoms although they are not approved in all countries for this purpose. 


Another class of abortive treatments are called ergots, which are usually effective if administered at the first sign of migraine. Other drugs have also been used to treat migraine such as combinations of barbituatesparacetamol or aspirin, and caffeine (Fioricet or Fiorinal) and combinations of acetaminophen, dichloralphenazone, and isometheptene (AmidrineDuadrin, and Midrin). If vomiting makes drugs difficult to ingest, anti-emetics will be prescribed. 


Migraine prevention begins with avoiding things that trigger the condition. The main goals of prophylactic therapies are to reduce the frequency, painfulness, and duration of migraine headaches and to increase the effectiveness of abortive therapies. There are several categories of preventive migraine medicine, ranging from diet changes and exercise to prescription drugs. Some of these include:


Prescription beta blockers, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants
Botulinum toxin A (Botox)
Herbs and vitamins such as butterbur, cannabis, coenzyme Q10, feverfew, magnesium citrate, riboflavin, B12, melatonin
Surgery that severs corrugator supercilii muscle and zygomaticotemporal nerve in the brain
Spinal cord stimulator implantation
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Vision correction
Exercise, sleep, sexual activity
Visualization and self-hypnosis
Chiropractic care or acupuncture
Special diets such as gluten free

It is possible for people to get medication overuse headache (MOH), or rebound headache, when taking too many medications in an attempt to prevent migraine.



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